情報知識学会誌, Vol. 12, No. 2

情報知識学会誌, 2002, 12(2), 3-9

SOME ASPECTS OF THE IMPACT OF THE INTERNET ON ACCESS TO INFORMATION
Michael W. Hill
Formerly Director,Science Reference Library,the British Library

We live in interesting times. There is no peace. Before we have adjusted to one new technology another is upon us and we have to start the adjustment process all over again. A period of calm in which to resolve how our needs can best be met is denied us. We are robbed of sufficient time to experiment thoroughly and systematically by improvements to each new technology of such frequency and magnitude that the equipment or system is obsolete before the research is finished.

A slight exaggeration perhaps, but not much, particularly when the modern information and communication technologies (ICTs) are being considered. Nevertheless, it is necessary to try to stand back for a moment from the forefront of progress and try to judge where the latest ICTS are leading us, what the consequences are likely to be and what changes we must make to how we work in order to gain maximum benefit and minimum disbenefit.

If we look back at the history of ICTs, we find that previously, after the excitement of each new technology, there has come about a rebalancing of all the then existing ones. Even today recording on stone is still used but only for static monuments. Printing did not eliminate manuscript, nor did the telephone, though first typing and now e-mail are greatly reducing the number of manuscript letters. We musts therefore, anticipate some redistribution of tasks for which each of the following is used:-

 Of course, a technology can serve more than one purpose. This is particularly true of the internet, which is only a system for interconnecting a vast number of computers together on a world-wide scale. Thus it facilitates correspondence to be sent simultaneously to many recipients, it enables computer to computer discussion groups to be set up, and it enables remote stores of information, text and pictures to be interrogated. For this it is necessary, of course, that all the communicating equipment and systems are compatible. Therein may lie one of the major problems of the future. Text stored using today's equipment/systems may prove inaccessible to the equipment/systems of the future.

 It is an oft repeated platitude that the internet enables all the peoples of the world to communicate with each other and to access all the information in the world. And, like all platitudes, it is only partially true. For those who can afford a computer and can learn the skills, it brings huge benefits but one does not use it to the exclusion of other ICTs. For example a telephone allows the subtle shades of meaning conveyed by the nuances of the human voice to come into play. E-mail is a very impersonal method of communicating compared with a letter, especially a manuscript one.

Nevertheless, the e-mail facility that the internet allows is, on the whole, beneficial as far as the dissemination and growth of information and knowledge is concerned. It is much faster than postal services and unlike the telephone it does not require the recipient to be present at the time of sending. Answer phones, though useful, are not an adequate alternative. It has the huge advantage that the same message, or request for information, can be sent simultaneously to a large number of people in the expectation that at least one will respond with the answer wanted. Experts may, however, find this a nuisance if they get too many requests, especially from schoolchildren undertaking "projects"

Unfortunately, e-mail has also raised a new barrier. Many newsletters that were previously printed and distributed free are now distributed only as attachments to e-mails. As a result those who do not have access to e-mail facilities are deprived of an information source that once they had. In industrial countries libraries provide access for the poor to e-mail and the internet generally. In general, this is not so in the poorer developing countries. Fortunately, even in the poorest countries, there are some organizations which have acquired or been donated means to access the internet, though without back-up electrical generators there may be problems from time to time of power supply. Among such organizations are hospitals and universities. For these arrangements are being made by UN and some professional bodies in industrial countries to provide free on-line access to publications. One huge advantage of the internet is that the cost of providing access to one more customer is trivial.

情報知識学会誌, 2002, 12(2), 10-21

DATA, INFORMATION AND KNOWLEDGE (DIK): Challenges in a Changing Society
Jacques-Emile Dubois
President of CODATA France, Professor Emeritus of University of Paris 7

In this issue of your Journal of your Japanese Society on Information and Knowl-edge, I wish to highlight the great changes that occurred in the last fifty years. As the history of Science and Technology did not begin during that period, I want to underline the characteristics of the classical approaches to Science, resulting from a long history of pragmatic and intellectual contributions.

The 19th century introduced numerous changes in our knowledge whose effects converged in the present Information Revolution which is, in reality, a Knowledge Revolution.

After a first section on ST aspects, I think it proper to elaborate on the structural changes in Information Circulation, first within the ST community and then in the world at large, via the present and future communication frameworks.

Both the ST world and the real world have changed dramatically. Still greater evolution is to be expected and, in this evolving situation, it is interesting to examine the future role of CODATA, its goals in ST proper and at regional and national levels.

情報知識学会誌, 2002, 12(2), 22-36

適合度順検索システムの性能評価尺度
Performance measures for ranked output retrieval systems
相良 佳弘
大妻女子大学(非常勤)

 今日、WWWサーチエンジンのような適合度順検察システムが一般的になってきている。しかしこれらのシステムの性能評価を行う際に、従来の評価尺度では、このような検索システムの性能評価に必要な以下の四つの要件を満たしていないという問題点がある。

  1. データベース中の全レコードの適合度判定を必要としない
  2. ユーザ志向の適合度判定に基づいている
  3. 適合度を多値的にとらえることができる
  4. 順位付けの適切さを測ることができる

 これまで広く用いられてきた精度、再現率は、これらの四つの要件をまったく満たしていない。また、順位付けを反映する評価尺度として考えられた正規化再現率やスライド比率も、四要件の全てを満たすには至っていない。本論文ではこの問題点を解決できる評価尺度として、順位相関分析、相関分析による評価尺度と、修正スライド比率を提案する。これらの尺度の妥当性を検討するため、実際に検索された23の検索事例を対象に実験を行った。その結果、これら三つの評価尺度は順位付けの適切さを十分に測ることができた。また、これら三つの尺度の特性も明らかになった。

  1. 順位相関分析、相関分析に基づいた評価尺度は、網羅性が求められる事例に適している
  2. 一方、修正スライド比率は、インターネット上での検索に見られるような、適合度が高い数件のレコードが得られればよい状況での評価に適している。

As ranked output retrieval systems such as WWW search engines become popular, development of reasonable measures to evaluate performance of such systems are increasingly needed. However, there are no satisfactory measures for the purpose since they lack the following four requirements.

  1. Relevance Judgment of all the records in a database should be avoided.
  2. User-oriented relevance judgment is needed.
  3. Relevance measures should have multi-values.
  4. Appropriateness of ranking outputs can be judged.

Neither traditional precision and recall nor normalized recall and sliding ratio that are used to evaluate ranked output retrieval system fulfill the above requirements. Therefore, measures based on a modified sliding ratio, rank correlation analysis and correlation analysis are proposed in this paper. To check the soundness of these measures, we experimented with 23-search examples and confirmed

情報知識学会誌, 2002, 12(2), 37-48

図書館におけるレファレンス経験の知識化
A Knowledge Management System for the Questions & Answers at the Reference Counters of Libraries
岩澤 まり子, 吉田 亜津美, 大下 祥司, 中西 陽子
図書館情報大学

 利用者の情報要求をみたすことができるレフアレンスサービスを図書館で提供するためには,図書館貝のレフアレンス能力の開発が必要である.本研究では,情報要求に適したレフアレンスツールを選択できるようにするため,図書館におけるレフアレンス経験を知識として蓄積する方法を提案し,レフアレンスツール案内システムを試作した.

 はじめにレフアレンス質問と回答およびツールの枕念化を行ない,上位枕念を用いて主題内容を表現した.その結果,分野名,特徴名,情報項目名および索引名を使用して,回答としてのツールが選択できることがわかった.これらを組織化し,Web上で利用でさるシステムを構築した.本システムにより,図書館においてレフアレンス経験を知識として共有化することが可能となった.

A management system for the library service is proposed, where the reference experiences at the counters of libraries are accumulated in a knowledge base and the latter base works so as it guide users along the lines of their interests. The system is a guide system formed of reference tools of tree structure. In practice, the user selects any subject field according to his interest, i.e., that of the feature, the information item, the index of the reference under questions, or any tool the user wants to use. Hence, the proposed system will allow the users to share the reference experiences which have been accumulated in the libraries.

情報知識学会誌, 2002, 12(2), 49-70

Bibliometric Analysis on Japanese Advertising Activities after the End of the World War II
Part I: Phenomenological features extracted from one specialized journal on advertisement

Hideya Azuma†, Junichi Sato††, Shuichi Iwata†††
†SENDENKAIGI Co.,Ltd.,President, ††International Center for Research and Development of Metatechnica Technology, President, †††The University of Tokyo,RACE,Professor

Advertisement could be regarded as a technology of word and language in social and economic domain, which makes economic activities closely related with life a and social basic system in the modern world. This report gives the result of the bibliometric analysis on the words collected from all the titles of monthly SENDENKAIGI, the only one Japanese journal for specialists in advertisement, examining its 613 issues from 1954 to 2000. It pursued phenomenologiclally the change of Japanese economy, industry and society, and their relations have been investigated through the usage frequency of words for advertisement by decade from 19sO's to 1990's, that is, from the ruins of the Second World War to the present position of one of the leading countries in the world. By studying the meaning and role of advertisement as wide as possible, even on such situations as human, society and environment besides its original role for market communication, it was phenomenologically made clear that the advertisement not only plays so important roles for suppliers to introduce their products to consumers, but also such extending roles as methods of communication to disseminate the situations of economic development and the social state to give to people the perspectives for the following decade hereafter on the economic and social direction, business concepts, and further environmental problems and international situation.

 現代社会で生活の基本システムである経済活動の社会達郎において、言語を道具とした社会的、経済的活動である広告に着目し、日本唯一の広告専門誌「宣伝会議」の1954年から2000年の47年間613冊の全誌における掲載記事の全タイトルに用いられた言葉の出現頻度について、ビブリオメトリー分析を実施した。50年代から90年代にわたる10年期毎に、第2次大戦後の日本の廃竣からめ徳井と現在に至るまでの経済、産業、社会の変遷を、広告用語を通して、現象蟄肘な特敢を明確にすることを目的に研究を行った。             

 本稿では、広告業のマーケットコミュニケーションを通じでの人間社会、環境への適応への貢献の可能性を探るため、企業製品の消費者への宣伝という狭義の広告に止まらず、産業界の発展や、社会情勢を正しく伝えることで、次の10年期への経済・社会動向、企業意識、さらに環境や国際間題等の理解に日本の広告活動が果たしてきた状況について、半定量的なビブリオメトリーで明らかにした結果を報告する。

情報知識学会誌, 2002, 12(2), 71-79

学術雑誌電子化支援システムとしての J-STAGE SGML 編集ツール
The J-STAGE SGML Editing Tool as an Electronization Support System of Academic Journals
Osamu NAKAGAWA† and Niichi NISHIWAKI††
†科学技術振興事業団 情報加工分析部 電子ジャーナル部門, ††奈良大学 社会学部 人間関係学科

 学術雑誌の電子ジャーナル化を堆進するためには電子化に伴う縮集委員会の負担を軽減することが必要である.電子化支援システムの一つとして開発された J−STAGE SGML 編集ツールは,雑誌の印刷後に組み版ソフトから書き出された論文毎のテキストファイルに SGMLタグ付けを行うもので,これにより従来の縮集・印刷プロセスを変更することなく,J-STAGE搭載に必要な SGMLデータを容易に作成することがでさる.本論では,その碍造と機能を紹介し,学術雑誌の電子化の将来について議論した.

It is necessary for the promotion of electronization of academic journals to reduce the load of editorial committee. The J-STAGE SGML Editing Tool was developed as an electronization support system, which adds SGML tags on the text file of each paper that was converted from the DTP software after publication of the journal. It makes possible without any modification of the current editing and printing process to create the SGML data which the J-STAGE requires to accept the journal. In this paper its structure and functions are introduced, together with the discussion on the future of electronization of academic journals.

情報知識学会誌, 2002, 12(2), 80-87

概念構造生成のための階層関係自動抽出法に関する検討
'Automatic Extraction of Hierarchical Relationships for Structuralization of Conceptual Structures
森本 貫之†, 浅川 直輝††, 後藤 智範†, 藤原 譲†††
†神祭川大学理学部, ††東京ゲームデザイナー学院, †††独立行政法人工業所有権総合情報館

 近年の計算機の高速化、大容量化と低価格化、さらにはインターネットの普及によって情報化が加速度的に進んでいる。今後も増加しつづけるであろう膨大な情報や知識を適切に利用するためには情報の内容に関する、より高度な処理機能が要求される。このような機能を実現するためには、情報や知識の意味を理解しなければならない。そして、そのためには意味関係が表現できる構造化およびその利用のためのアプリケーションあるいはシステムが必要である。このような要求に村して、専門用語を最小単位とした概念構造の生成とその利用のためのシステムの開発を進めている。本研究では、概念構造を生成するのためのシステムの一部である階層関係の自動抽出法における問題点の調査について報告する。

The global flow of information is being developed at unprecedented speed. However, users can not sufficiently utilize huge amount of information. Therefore, advanced utilization of contents of information are required. In order to realize such sophisticated utilization, it is necessary to understand meaning and characteristics of information. Therefore, the structuralization is required to represent various semantic relationships among information. In order to satisfy such requirement, we made systems for self organized knowledge resources and information retrieval based on semantic relationships. However, these systems can not make enough structuralized knowledge resources to realize sophisticated utilization. This paper reports problems which are classified and systematized at the method of an automatic extraction of hierarchical relationships which called SS-KWEIC because hierarchical relationships are the basis of semantic relationships in our concepts.

情報知識学会誌, 2002, 12(2), 88-94

諸学のなかにおける情報学の位置づけ
The Positioning of Johogaku in Sciences
平田 周
立正大学 大学院経営研究科

 高等学校の普通教科「情報」が来年度よりいよいよ実施される。その内容をみると、コンピュータやネットワークのテーマが中心である。高等学校で教える教科のほとんどは、それらが根拠とする諸学が存在する。新教科「情報」はいかなる学が基礎となっているのであろうか。内容からは、強いていえば、コンピュータ・サイエンスであるが、わが国では、コンピュータ・サイエンスが学として認知されてはいない。「情報」にそれ以上のものが込められているのも事実である。「情報学」がその支えとなるべきだと考える意見は多い。しかし、情報学は、まだ明確な定義を与えられているとはいい難い。この問題を考えるにあたり、諸学を二つの異なるタイプに分けて考える、新たなアプローチのスタンスを本稿で提案してみたい。

Among sciences including natural science. social science, and humanities, what role will be played by johogaku, information science? The author suggests a new concept that sciences can be classified in types of A series and B series. While A series are many of sciences commonly studied, B series are some special type of sciences such as mathematics, philosophy, law, and linguistics, whose characteristics are combinability with various sciences of A series. Johogaku, Information science can be characterized both A and B series. The author named the former "informtics" and the latter "informatology". This will be useful as an approach in study of the essence of johogaku, information science.

最終更新日: 2011-02-18 (金) 12:05:48

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